Growing Cannabis in West Virginia

Growing cannabis has become an increasingly popular agricultural and entrepreneurial endeavor in many states, as laws and regulations evolve. West Virginia, known for its rich soil and favorable climate for various crops, has seen an uptick in cannabis cultivation since legislative changes in recent years. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the history, regulations, and best practices for growing cannabis in West Virginia.

Historical Context

Cannabis, both as hemp and marijuana, has a long history in West Virginia. Hemp, a type of cannabis with low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content, was cultivated in the state for its strong fibers since the early colonial days. It played a crucial role in the region’s agricultural economy, with West Virginia being one of the significant hemp-producing states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

However, with the advent of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 and later the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, both hemp and marijuana became federally illegal to grow without a special license. It wasn’t until the 2018 Farm Bill, which differentiated hemp (cannabis with 0.3% THC or less) from marijuana and legalized its cultivation, that a resurgence in interest occurred.

Legal Framework

As of the last update in 2021, West Virginia has legalized medical marijuana but retains strict controls over recreational use. However, the growing of hemp for industrial purposes is permitted with appropriate licensing.

Medical Cannabis

The West Virginia Medical Cannabis Act allows registered patients to obtain cannabis for medical purposes from licensed dispensaries. While patients cannot grow their own plants, licensed growers can cultivate cannabis to supply these dispensaries. Interested cultivators must undergo an application process, adhere to specific growing guidelines, and be regularly inspected to maintain their licenses.

Hemp Cultivation

Farmers looking to grow hemp in West Virginia must apply for a license through the West Virginia Department of Agriculture. They must provide details about their intended growing sites and must only use approved seed varieties. Regular testing of crops is mandatory to ensure THC levels remain below the 0.3% threshold.

Cultivation Best Practices

Given the varied topography and climate of West Virginia, cannabis growers should be aware of certain best practices that can lead to a successful harvest.

Selecting the Right Strain

It’s crucial to choose strains suited to West Virginia’s climate. Strains originating from similar temperate climates, with resistance to mold and pests, are ideal.

Soil Preparation

West Virginia’s soil is diverse. For optimum cannabis growth, it’s advisable to use loamy soil – a balanced mixture of sand, silt, and clay. Regular soil testing and amendments like compost or manure can help maintain its fertility.

Water Management

Due to the region’s regular rainfall, it’s essential to ensure proper drainage to prevent overwatering and root rot. Raised beds or planting on mounds can facilitate this.

Pest and Disease Management

Organic methods of pest control, such as introducing beneficial insects or using neem oil, can protect the plants without resorting to harsh chemicals.

Harvest Timing

Timing is crucial. Harvesting too early or too late can affect the potency and yield. Regularly monitoring trichomes and understanding strain-specific harvest windows is key.

Economic Implications

Cannabis cultivation can significantly impact West Virginia’s economy. As more growers enter the industry, there’s potential for job creation, increased tax revenues, and further business opportunities such as processing, transportation, and tourism.

Medical cannabis, in particular, has the potential to revitalize former coal towns, offering a new avenue of economic development. Hemp, meanwhile, can be integrated into crop rotation schedules with other staples like corn and soybeans, boosting soil health and providing a lucrative alternative for farmers.


Growing cannabis in West Virginia, be it hemp or medical marijuana, presents an opportunity rich with potential. The state’s historical ties to hemp cultivation, coupled with evolving legislation and a favorable climate, make it poised to become a significant player in the burgeoning U.S. cannabis industry. However, success will hinge on adhering to the established legal frameworks, adopting best cultivation practices, and a continued commitment to research and development in this field.