Growing Cannabis in Pennsylvania

Cannabis cultivation has a long history throughout the world, and as legislation changes, many regions are adapting to new cultivation practices. Pennsylvania, located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, is no exception. As the Keystone State navigates the evolving legal landscape surrounding cannabis, understanding how to grow cannabis in Pennsylvania’s unique climate and within the confines of its regulations is crucial. This article delves into the fundamental aspects of cultivating cannabis in Pennsylvania, from regulatory requirements to best agricultural practices for the region.

Legal Context

Medical Cannabis Legalization

Pennsylvania’s path to legalizing cannabis began with medical usage. In April 2016, the Pennsylvania Medical Marijuana Act (Act 16) was signed into law by Governor Tom Wolf. This act allowed registered patients with qualifying conditions to access medical cannabis in various forms, such as oils, topicals, pills, tinctures, vaporizable forms, and liquids.

Cultivation for Personal and Commercial Use

As of the last update in 2021, personal cultivation of cannabis for recreational use remains illegal in Pennsylvania. Only licensed commercial growers/processors can legally cultivate cannabis for medical purposes. It’s essential to remain updated on state legislation, as the legal status of cannabis and cultivation can change.

Climate Considerations

Pennsylvania boasts a diverse climate due to its vast size and varying topography. This diversity affects cannabis cultivation in different parts of the state.

Temperature and Seasons

Pennsylvania has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. Cannabis plants, being annual, go through their full life cycle in one growing season, typically between spring and fall. Ensuring that plants aren’t exposed to freezing temperatures is crucial, especially during the germination and early vegetative stages.


The state receives a moderate amount of rainfall annually, which can be beneficial for outdoor cannabis cultivation. However, it’s important to ensure proper drainage for plants, as overwatering or constant moisture can lead to mold or root rot.

Soil Quality

Pennsylvania’s soil varies but generally consists of loamy soil types which are well-suited for cannabis cultivation. It’s essential to test the soil for pH levels and nutrient content to ensure optimal growth conditions. Cannabis prefers slightly acidic soil with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0.

Cultivation Methods

Given the state’s varied climate, multiple cultivation methods can be employed in Pennsylvania.

Outdoor Cultivation

Outdoor cultivation utilizes natural sunlight, which can be ideal during Pennsylvania’s longer daylight hours in the summer. It’s essential to select a site with adequate sunlight (at least 6-8 hours), protection from strong winds, and good soil drainage.

Indoor Cultivation

For those seeking a more controlled environment or looking to produce multiple harvests annually, indoor cultivation is an option. This method requires artificial lighting, controlled temperatures, and humidity levels. While initial setup costs can be higher, indoor cultivation can yield high-quality cannabis year-round.

Greenhouse Cultivation

Greenhouses offer a blend of indoor and outdoor cultivation benefits. They provide a controlled environment while utilizing natural sunlight, which can be supplemented with artificial lighting if necessary. Greenhouses can also extend the growing season in Pennsylvania, allowing for multiple harvests.

Pest and Disease Management

Pennsylvania’s humid climate can pose challenges in terms of pests and diseases. Common pests include spider mites, aphids, and whiteflies, while mold and powdery mildew are prevalent diseases.

Organic Pest Control

Many growers opt for organic methods to keep pests at bay. Neem oil, ladybugs, and predatory mites can be effective against many common pests.

Disease Prevention

Good airflow, proper spacing between plants, and keeping the grow area clean are essential in preventing the onset of diseases. For indoor grows, controlling humidity levels can significantly reduce the risk of mold and mildew.

Harvesting and Curing

When the majority of the trichomes on the cannabis buds turn milky white or amber and the pistils darken, it’s time to harvest. After harvesting, the buds should be dried in a controlled environment for about a week. Once dried, they can be cured in airtight containers for several weeks to improve flavor and potency.


While there are legal constraints to consider, Pennsylvania’s climate and soil can be conducive to successful cannabis cultivation with the right strategies. As always, growers should stay informed about local regulations and best practices to ensure a safe and fruitful growing experience.